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Calcium | Feature | Sources | deficiency

Basic characteristics of calcium

Calcium belongs to the group of essential minerals. Main role of calcium is to build blocks of our skeletal system and teeth. 

Apart from the bones and teeth, calcium is also deposited in the soft tissues and blood.

The main role of calcium is to build up bone mass during growth and development of man, but also calcium participates in many metabolic processes, the creation of hormones and enzymes, in the muscle contraction and transmission of nerve impulses.

Paratireoidea is the main gland that affects the metabolism of calcium in the body. It produces a hormone that regulates the level of calcium in the blood.

Who needs higher amounts of calcium?

Period of growth in children and adolescents is followed by a sudden and rapid elongation of bones, bone mass augmentation and of course the increased need for calcium, vitamin D and phosphorus. 

These three elements are the building blocks that participate in the processes of the organism. Any deficit one of the elements leads to a state of slight increase, growth retardation, rickets, soft bones and the like.

During life, a large amount of calcium is excreted through monthly menstrual blood in women. These are great losses to the organism, which in later reproductive age of women (menopause) resulting in osteoporosis, bone mass loss, high probability to fractures.

In pregnant women, calcium from the mother's body passes into the body of the fetus in order to build skeletal apparatus of the future child. Therefore, pregnant women should pay attention to the foods that are taken and to take sufficient amounts of calcium that are prescribed by doctors. This can be applied to women who are breastfeeding a baby either.

A great physical effort, running, training provoke taking large amounts of calcium in order to build greater bone mass, therefore it is necessary that in this period of life when is the greatest activity, to take sufficient calcium needs.

Sources of calcium in food

Sources of calcium present in most foods that we consume through nutrition, but the following list of foods has calcium in significant quantities:


- Milk and dairy products (yogurt, butter, sour cream, cheese, milk ice cream)
- Green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, kale, lettuce, cabbage, peas, onions, garlic, asparagus, eggplant)
- Nuts (walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, chestnuts)
- Seeds (sesame, sunflower, peanut)
- Cereals (buckwheat, wheat, rye, oats, soy, rice, millet)
- Citrus (oranges, bananas, kiwi, lemon, tangerines)
- Fish (canned fish also)
- Mushrooms (button mushrooms, shiitake mushrooms)
- Numerous fruit
- Cinnamon, dark chocolate

Foods that reduce calcium absorption

Spinach contains oxalic acid and reduces calcium absorption in the intestine. The presence of insoluble fiber plant in green vegetables also reduces utilization of calcium.

Foods that contain more phosphorus, adversely affect the metabolism of calcium, causing it to lose calcium from bones. 

Foods rich in phosphorus (phosphoric acid) such as carbonated drinks, such as Coca Cola, which has an abundance of sugar, despite the fact that leaches calcium from the bones, it is also detrimental to the metabolism of magnesium in the body.

Caffeine, tea, nicotine, and water in large amounts reduce the positive absorption of calcium.

In addition to food of plant and animal origin, calcium can also be found in the form of supplements, as a single mineral, or in combination with calcium + magnesium, calcium + vitamin D + phosphorus or in combination with other vitamins and minerals.

Health Benefits of Calcium

• The positiv action on the nervous system

It was found that calcium plays a role as activator of enzymes in the development of nerve cells of the brain, and also participates in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.

• Calcium and muscles

Calcium is necessary in everyday muscle work, participates in muscle contraction and muscle relaxation.

• The role of calcium on the hormonal status of the organism

Production of hormones is directly connected with the presence of calcium. Calcium is needed for pregnant women, nursing mothers, women in menopause, women who have problems with premenstrual syndrome.

• Calcium and circulation

Blood clotting is impossible without the presence of calcium in the blood.

• Metabolic functions of calcium

Calcium participates in metabolic processes in the body, so that helps with conditions such as eating disorders, obesity, disorders in the digestion of food.

• The role of calcium in the digestive tract

Calcium salts are used as antacids to reduce the acidity of gastric contents.

The deficit of calcium | Symptoms of calcium deficiency

The deficit is caused by:

- insufficient calcium intake
- poor absorption 
- high renal loss 

If there is sufficient concentration of calcium in the blood, it pulls from the bones (calcium depot), which adversely affects their structure. This leads to the appearance of osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone mass loss.

The deficit of calcium can be reflected in disturbed transmission of nerve impulses to muscles (paralysis, paresis, uncontrolled muscle spasms, tremors).

High blood pressures, heart rhythm disorders, convulsions, depression, are also related to the deficit of calcium in the blood.

Women who don't take enough calcium during pregnancy, there will be a greater possibility of developing preeclampsia - a disorder that is manifested by the appearance of high blood pressure, swelling of hands and feet and the presence of protein in the urine.

The interaction of calcium and other minerals

• The ratio of calcium: phosphorus should be tied 1: 1 because any increase in phosphorus in relation to calcium, leading to increased excretion of calcium from the body and its loss.

Calcium and iron are minerals that aren't in love, because calcium reduces the absorption of iron. If you use iron preparations never consume milk with or immediately before.

• Calcium may reduce the absorption of zinc.

Boron and calcium are minerals that love each other, because each other on very well together and are combined in the treatment of osteoporosis.

Vitamin D increases calcium absorption.


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